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IT IS ALL SOLAR

MEGALITH STUDYCeltic Cross Mystery

DisclTHE FORUMaimer

Statistical Methods used by Engineering Professor Alexander (Sandy) Thom

Used here to prove a pattern in the Landscape exists in the Haut Vallée d'Aude 

Professor Alexender Thom

But firstly some background

This page is dedicated to man who showed us the way

Professor Alexander (Sandy) Thom

(26 March 1894 – 7 November 1985)

In his short history of 'Astro-archaeology' John Michell argued that the status of research into ancient astronomy had improved over the past two centuries, going 'from lunacy to heresy to interesting notion and finally to the gates of orthodoxy.' Nearly two decades later, we can still ask the question: Is archaeoastronomy still waiting at the gates of orthodoxy or has it gotten inside the gates?
—Todd Bostwick quoting John Michell

A brief word about Professor Thom

Alexander Thom was an Engineer who lectured at Oxford and who was better equipped to study the astro-archaeology concept than 95% of all archaeologists whose understanding of mathematics is not a primary requirement for their discipline. In his lifetime Prof Thom received much criticism for even daring to make the proposals he made. A BBC Chronicle programme (from a time when the BBC was not afraid to tell the truth) shows his work and the opposition he received during his lifetime.

The reason his work matters is because I believe that the CROMLECK of RENNES is comprised of churches and important places which have been placed upon previous sites of worship of a people from an indeterminate time. These people have been referred to by Henri Boudet in his book La Vraie Langue Celtique et le Cromleck de Rennes les Bains

In Boudet’s introduction from his book La Vraie Langue Celtique et le Cromleck de Rennes-les-Bains he says:

 “The Languedocian dialect spoken in our region does not appear a way of course so that one can, while following it, to preserve the hope to arrive at an important result. Nevertheless, this way, we traversed it with patience; in the firm persuasion which Divine Providence would direct our steps and would allow us to reach with the goal of our efforts. When the torch that we seek with anxiety, is the watch of our eyes, its first ray fell on the name of the tectosages, and this ray dazzled us. It was necessary any time not to be fully delivered to imagination, and in the intention to convince us, us even of the reality of this light, suitable to clarify Gallic Times, we tried to make it reflect by mirrors of the languages Hebraic, Punic, Basque and Celtic. The result appeared serious to us, and before being useful to us of the language of megalithic Tectosages to explain the significance of the monuments of Rennes-les-Bains [the] object first of our research, we applied it to the interpretation of the proper names taken in these various languages. This is why one will find, initially, in this work these tests of interpretation, because they are intended to be used as decisive proof.”

Throughout the Languedoc there are places where Christian Crosses have been placed at points of previous pagan worship these include rocks springs and places where three track-ways meet.

The importance of these places was brought to out attention by the writings of St Eligius in the 6th century.



St Eligius was the spiritual advisor to the Merovingian kings including King Dagobert 1. He said:

"Before all else, I denounce and contest, that you shall observe no sacrilegious pagan customs. For no cause or infirmity should you consult magicians, diviners, sorcerers or incantators, or presume to question them because any man who commits such evil will immediately lose the sacrament of baptism. Do not observe auguries or violent sneezing or pay attention to any little birds singing along the road. If you are distracted on the road or at any other work, make the sign of the cross and say your Sunday prayers with faith and devotion and nothing inimical can hurt you. No Christian should be concerned about which day he leaves home or which day he returns because God has made all days. No influence attaches to the first work of the day or the [phase of the] moon; nothing is ominous or ridiculous about the Calends of January. [Do not] make [figures of?] vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Years' gifts or supply superfluous drinks. No Christian believes impurity or sits in incantation, because the work is diabolic. No Christian on the feast of Saint John or the solemnity of any other saint performs solestitia [solstice rites?] or dancing or leaping or diabolical chants. No Christian should presume to invoke the name of a demon, not Neptune or Orcus or Diana or Minerva or Geniscus or believe in these inept beings in any way. No one should observe Jove's day in idleness without holy festivities not in May or any other time, not days of larvae or mice or any day but Sunday. No Christian should make or render any devotion to the gods of the trivium, where three roads meet, to the fanes or the rocks, or springs or groves or corners."

The Life of St. Eligius, 588-660[I A1] 

[I A1]Vita S. Eligius, ed. Levison, MGH SS Mer. 4, 669-742 Translation by Jo Ann McNamara

 The workshop

St Eligius

Painting by Petrus Christus 1449CE

 

In the passage from Vita S. Eligius above you notice that GENISCUS (a corruption of Genius)is mentioned. These are described as witches by the Holy Roman Church.

However in Gaul, the Genius is often hooded (Genius Cucullatus) and appears either singly or in a group of three

 

 

Genicus

Here is a 1st Century wall painting of a Geniscus

The similarity to the Goddess Hecate is obvious here

  

Geniscus is mentioned in the 1876 historical fiction Dante and Beatrice from 1282 to 1290: A Romance by Elizabeth Kerr Coulson, writing under the pseudonym Roxburghe Lothian. Coulson recounts at length the Christian prohibitions that a friar called The Hermit must enforce, then segues into practices deemed tolerable:

Whether she used the Vita of St. Eligius directly or another source such as Croker, Coulson preserves the collocation of Geniscus with Minerva and Orcus (here Ouragus). She either innovates or draws on traditions pertaining to the cult of the Genii by making Geniscus the "helper" of Orcus.

on the mention of the word Genius your attention is drawn to this phrase

“In the Aude, the peasants rather believe in the malignant spirit, the fairies and the underground geniuses than with the Virgin and the Angels”


Gaston Jourdanne: Contribution to the Folklore of the Aude, 1900
Contemporary with Béranger Saunière

According to this Saint Gertrude of Nivelle (A Merovingian by birth) was tasked with the removal of pagan symbolism from the land.

Gertrude's father was Pepin of Landen (Pippin the Elder), a nobleman from east Francia and had been instrumental in persuading the Merovingian King Clothar II to crown his son, Dagobert I, as the King of Austrasia.

The eldest son of Dagobert I was Sigebert III and his son was

SAINT Dagobert II

You will remember that this Saint's name is used here

Saint Gertrude's sister Begga (Saint Begga) was the grandmother of Charles Martel from whom the Carolingians got their name - and his grandson was Charlemagne.

 

According to several sites, Saint Gertrude of Nivelles is the Christian Saint masquerading as the Roman Goddess Diana - The Moon Goddess.

 

CLEARLY THE EARLY SAINTS OF THE HOLY ROMAN CHURCH WERE CONCERNED IN REPLACING PREVIOUS RELIGIOUS PRACTICES WITH THEIR OWN AND THIS INCLUDED THE REMOVAL OF PLACES OF WORSHIP AND PLACING THEIR OWN CHRISTIAN IMAGES ONTO THESE SITES.  IN DOING THIS THEY WOULD HAVE INADVERTENTLY MARKED THIS SITE. IF LANDSCAPE GEOMETRY HAD BEEN INVOLVED IN THE PLACING OF THE PREVIOUS PLACES WHERE BRONZE AND IRONAGE MAN WORSHIPPED THEN THIS WOULD STILL BE PRESENT IN THE PLACING OF MODERN CHURCHES.

 


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Firstly why does this matter in the context of the Cromlech of Rennes?


 In the village of Peyrolles

The Calvaire (Cross) placed for no apparent reason

where three roads meet

in the village of

PEYROLLES

PEYRO is Occitan for Standing Stone. 

It matters because this author is trying to prove that a pattern exists in the landscape of several clearly defined areas of the world particularly France, Ireland and Britain and that ethnic cleansing by the Holy Roman Church has inadvertently marked these formerly sacred patterns with their placing the Holy Roman Churches "Images of the Saints" over previous places of worship by a much older civilizations.

Several attempts have been made using very simplistic and flawed mathematics and concepts to offer some kind of proof that no landscape geometry exists and that "patterns can be made to fit anything given enough points of interest". This flawed mathematics has been contested here this page will not concern itself with the points raised in that page and answering objections to this proposal but will concern itself in directly proving the validity of Landscape Geometry in various areas including the Haute-Vallée de l'Aude

. This proof will use the statistical methods used by Professor Alexander Thom in his comprehensive study of Megalithic sites of Britain and France. 

 The statistical methods and concepts of Professor Thom 

In his first book published in 1967 called Megalithic sites in Britain he starts off with a detailed explanation of the statistical methodology he used. He says that throughout the book he will make extensive use of statistical theory. Throughout Thom uses 'standard deviation' ( ơ ) he makes use of the concept 'probable error' this can be defined as:

 probable error = 0.67 x standard deviation ( ơ ) 

It would be best to quote Professor Thom directly at this point he says:

When we write a length as L ± ơ then we understand that the chance of an error of 2ơ or more in L is about 1 in 20 or 5 per cent.
The simplest case is where we have found the arithmetic mean of a number of measurements of a single quality. The deviation of each measurement from the mean may be called
ε and the 'variance' is the mean of the squares of all the values of ε. The square root of the variance is then ơ, the standard deviation, so we have:

ơ2 = Ʃε2/n

where n is the number of measurements.
So long as we go on taking measurements of the same quality by the same method we should expect to get approximately the same value for ơ. It is a measure of the kind of deviation we should expect to get in any future measurement of the same kind. But when we form the mean of the group of our measurements we have a quality of a much more precise nature and this is expressed by the formula:

ơmean = ơ/√n


This is sometimes called 'the standard error of the mean' or sometimes the 'standard deviation of the mean'

It is important at this point to realise that Professor Thom took his measurements with a theodolite and not using GPS.

Professor Thom using theodolite

The GPS (Global Positioning System) is unsurpassed for determining where you are, however it was never designed for giving accurate bearings of distant objects from your position using a two dimensional map. A CONCEPT WHICH THE DETRACTORS OF THIS LANDSCAPE GEOMETRY HYPOTHESIS (e.g. Mariano Tomatis) FAIL TO GRASP. Although accurate measurements are possible the 'User segment' is limited. A University of New Brunswick study of GPS limitations can be studied in PDF format here.  

 However below you will find some GPS co-ordinates (in GPS format) of churches and points in the Haute-Vallée de l'Aude in Excel format taken by David Williams:

coordinates.csv  

Whilst these are useful they miss the whole essence of the problem if the sun, moon and the stars have been used to lay out the landscape patterns and in a time perhaps before 3000 years ago

Professor Thom noticed that Pythagorean concepts were being used in the layout of stone circles.

Possibly by a people Abbé Henri Boudet called the

Volkes Tectosages.

Julius Caesar, quoting Eratosthenes, described these Tectosages as

  

"There was a time when the Gauls surpassed the Germans in bravery, carried the war to their homes, sent colonies beyond the Rhine because they were too numerous and did not have enough land. It is thus that the most fertile districts of Germany, in the vicinity of the Hercynian forest, of which Eratosthenes and certain other Greek authors had, as far as I can see, heard-they call it Orcynienne-were occupied by The Volct Tectosages, who settled there; this people still lives in the country and has the greatest reputation for justice and military value. "

an interesting piece from Wikipedia says:

Tectosages Volques attended the " great expedition " of 280 BC. BC led them in Asia Minor where Tectosages form one of the three great nations of Galatians .Tradition holds that the current Volques Tectosages region Toulouse have participated in this great expedition. They have participated in the looting of the Delphic sanctuary and have reported in Gaul booty would be at the origin of the gold of Toulouse . This gold was recovered by the Roman army during the conquest of Gaul said Narbonaise, future Roman province of " Gallia Narbonensis ". This gold would be cursed because of its sacrilegious origin.

Read more about this here

and the "Gold of Toulouse" possibly found in this lake

The Grail Lake

Otto Rahn's GRAIL LAKE

It is called Etang des Truites. There is no trout in this lake, trout have been unable to survive in this lake because of volcanic gassing activity resulting in low oxygen levels in the lake. There is however an endemic species of Golden Salamander. The word Truites is a corruption of the word Druides. It is described as Otto Rahn's Grail lake and the lake sits above another lake called Etang du Diable (Devils Pond). The lakes are on the slopes of (BS) Bartholémy and Soularac (Solar Rock) -

Reminding one of course of this

Sauniere's Benitier

Saunière's Benitier with

Devil's Pond - Golden Salamanders - BS - and the Cross of the Royal Stars 

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Tectosage coin

Tectosages coin found in the region of Toulouse

Note that all coins found depict a cross similar to the PAX Chi Rho

or the Wheel of the Year.

 

You will find a link to a BBC Chronicle programme from 31st October 1970 called

Cracking the Stone Age Code

that illustrates the true nature of the study needed.

Note the coincidence here that 31st October is the Celtic New Years Eve

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Sunwheel project

A Scientific and detailed study of Megaliths, Cromlechs and Dolmens.

And the former position of these Megalithic sites replaced by Christian symbolism

(e.g. churches, statues and calvaires)

Callanish

 

PDF of Thom's first book

MEGALITHIC SITES IN BRITAIN

The All Saints church at Rudstone, Yorkshire, England

And Monolith.

An example of Christian churches (images of the Saints) being on former places of pagan worship

The Megalith at Rudstone in East Yorkshire
The 40 tonne RUDSTONE in the village of the same name in Yorkshire
Notice the Christian church placed on what was once clearly a Pagan site of worship.
This stone was hauled from Cayton Bay 9 miles up hill to this spot
The question is why
What was so special about this particular spot that warranted the effort of placing a 40 metric ton stone at this spot?
Carbon Dating of organic material around this stone dates back 3000 years.
According to records the Norman Tower of the church was built around 1100CE. Although it has been suggested that the monolith may have arrived here as a Glacial Erratic all previous glacial erratic stones are always spherical in shape and roll into position by glacial action. This stone, is flat, and is at the top of a hill rising to 125ft ASL in a mere 5 miles from the sea. Glacial action does not tend to roll flat stones weighing 40 tonnes up a hill.